Dekeyser (2000) indicated that the participants whose age on set after fifteen and high GJT scores were reported to have high level of analytic ability. The interaction between aptitude and SLA will be explored in a more detailed way in the next parts. Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) pointed out that the late-learner group had higher aptitude in comparison with young learner group, suggesting that aptitude was necessary for late-learners to reach near-nativeness level in L2. Overall, Harley and Hart (1997) pointed out positive influence of analytic ability on L2 learning. Second language (L2) learning aptitude is characterized as strengths individual learners have—relative to their population—in the cognitive abilities information processing draws on during L2 learning and performance in various contexts and at different stages. Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) evidence regarding aptitude-interaction was in line with what had been proved by Dekeyser (1993). It was once questioned whether the notion of language aptitude overlapped with intelligence. Thus far, it could be observed that a number of findings have been found regarding language aptitude, drawing the line for pedagogical implications and future directions. For this perception, Grigorenko (2000) proposed a new test type which captured different abilities in comparison with Carroll and Sapon (1959). Second language (L2) learning aptitude is characterized as strengths individual learners have—relative to their population—in the cognitive abilities information processing draws on during L2 learning and performance in various contexts and at different stages. Secondly, similar to Dekeyser’s (1993), this study did not categorize corrective feedback into different types. However, it is essential to mention that memory for text was used in Hwu and Sun’s (2012) paper. Language aptitude refers to the potential that a person has for learning languages. More specifically, according to Yilmaz (2013), when it comes to learner groups with either high working memory capacity or high language analytic ability, explicit feedback does work better than recast. According to what Dörnyei and Ryan (2015) reviewed, CANAL-FT focus on five knowledge acquisition processes which were selective encoding, accidental encoding, selective comparison, selective transfer, and selective combination. The participants were asked to complete grammatical sensitivity test, questionnaires of extrinsic motivation and anxiety, as well as fill-in-the-blank Grammar test as grammatical achievement measurement. For instance, for a L2 group which the majority of learners has high analytic ability, the teacher could either go with either inductive approach or structured-input method, as these two methods were proved to be beneficial with this type of language learners (Erlam, 2005). Also, the association between language aptitude and learners’ speaking ability also received some attention from SLA researchers, which is also addressed in the paper. To be begin with, the construct of language aptitude and how its operationalization has experienced changes over the time in SLA is addressed. Also, the connection between aptitude and motivation, a well-researched individual difference (ID) factor, is reviewed. In particularly, although a variety of tests have been developed and consisted of more components, MLAT still holds the superiority owing to its validity. MUSICAL APTITUDE AND SECOND-LANGUAGE PHONETICS LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING METHODOLOGY by Caroline Morgan M.A. Pimsleur was particularly interested in students who failed foreign language courses while doing well in other subjects. Specifically, the commonly-used version of LLAMA was called “LLAMA suite” which consisted of four subtests. Dr. John B. Carroll, who created the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) with his co-author Stanley Sapon, once defined language aptitude as simply an ability or “knack” for learning foreign languages. In other words, from the view of connection between language aptitude and feedback, Dekeyser’s (1993) provided some positive correlation between these two factors. However, the findings of Dekeyser (1993), Winke (2013), as well as Saito and Hanzawa (2016) noted that language aptitude and motivation interacted with each other. In particular, Pimsleur’s (1996) verbal intelligence component was the same as what Carroll and Sapon (1985) addressed as inductive language learning ability and grammatical sensitivity. Also, Hwu, Pan, & Sun (2014) suggested that low aptitude learners performed significantly better with deductive condition in the correction test. There are several studies in which motivation and language aptitude were reported as factors influencing language learning. The results of Saito and Hanzawa’s (2016) study indicated that all the variables (length and focus of instruction, frequent L2 conversation, aptitude, and motivation) related to Japanese EFL learners’ speaking performance, which meant that aptitude did not solely demonstrate any clear evidence relating to oral ability in foreign language learning. Then, the development of aptitude and its operationalization is explored. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Last but not least, as language aptitude was believed to correlate with motivation and there has been a controversy regarding motivation as a component of language aptitude, the association between these two ID factors worth further examination. First, the analysis revealed that the ESL-high-aptitude learners and EFL-low-aptitude learners tended to use practicing and hypothesis testing strategies in comparison with ESL-low-aptitude and EFL-high-aptitude ones, which was explained as the different role that language aptitude played in the two learning contexts. Also, according to Meisel (2009), early maturational changes affected on some structures relating to inflectional morphology (for instance gender, number, and subject-verb agreement). After all it is the student's good or poor attitude that makes life easy or dif-ficult in the foreign language classroom. The first point relates to language aptitude measurement. Although LLAMA test provided new insights of means to measure language aptitude, the developer Meara (2005) recommends that the test should not be used in high-stake situations due to its low validity. It could be noticed that the studies of Harley and Hart (1997), Dekeyser (2002), as well as Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) indicated the connection between language aptitude, age, and level of near-nativeness. On the other hand, a part of results from Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) as well as the study of Granena (2014) explored that there also was an interaction between language aptitude and early learners when it came to language features that were sensitive to CPH. For this reason, although it has been proved that strategies were used more in EFL context to compensate the lack of natural exposure, there was still lack of evidence to conclude that ESL learners used fewer strategies than their counterparts. To begin with, the construct of foreign language aptitude and its operationalization will be addressed in the next part of the paper. Firstly, Dekeyser (1993) did not clearly divide feedback into different categories. However, despite the fact that the connection between aptitude, pronunciation, lexis and collocation of late-learners was reported, the association between aptitude and morphosyntax of young learners was not mentioned by Granena and Long (2012). The results of the study demonstrated that learners with high language ability and positive attitude towards feedback were beneficial from oral correction. According to Wesche (1981), Audio-visual Method was the core method and applied with students who had high overall ability and acceptable scores on the subtests of LAB. In other words, according to Winke (2013), learners with low language aptitude would need more motivation, which was in line with Dörnyei’s (2005) view. Company Registration No: 4964706. The learners were divided into three groups receiving different teaching methods: deductive instruction, inductive instruction, and structured input instruction. Regarding feedback, Dekeyser (1993) as well as Havranek and Cesnik (2001) proved the overall effectiveness of error correction in second language learning. Secondly, recasts were reported either work with low WMC learners or high LAA learners in plural feature. However, for the late immersion group, English was considered as a code and taught more explicitly, which explained for the result of the study. Hummel’s (2009) results suggested that phonological memory significantly correlated with L2 vocabulary performance. However, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) also noted that when it came to a demanding GJT task, late-learners’ performance did not reach the level of near-nativeness level. Also, auditory ability of Pimsleur (1996) was similar to Carroll and Sapon’s (1985) phonetic coding ability (Dörnyei & Ryan, 2015). More specifically, Dekeyser (1993) explored how variables of previous achievement, language aptitude, anxiety, and motivation had impacts on oral feedback. Although the participants of both Wesche’s (1981) article as well as Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study, learners’ age has been a controversial issue in SLA. In addition, through the development of foreign language aptitude’s operationalization, working memory gradually involved in the notion of aptitude and it has been considered as a component of language aptitude, leading to the fact that tests measuring working memory capacity have been developed and applied in research. Pimleur’s research led him to identify two main factors of language aptitude in addition to motivation and study habits. There have not been many studies conducted in this area, and most of the below reviewed studies focus on learners in EFL context. Reference this. 119–154). Building on the extensive work conceptualizing, developing, and validating foreign language aptitude for successful second language acquisition (e.g., Skehan, 2015, in Applied Linguistics), the current project expounded the cognitive abilities relevant and instrumental to adult Japanese classroom learners’ pronunciation attainment of English /ɹ/. This could be noticed through the two studies of Wesche (1981) and Hwu and Sun (2012) in which MLAT were utilized. The forth subtest was grammatical inferencing task with visual stimuli with the hope of making the test suitable with participants with different L1s. On the contrary, explicit correction worked for both high and low WMC or LAA. Experience tells us that some people learn a second or foreign language with greater ease, more quickly, or with apparently better results than others. The Importance of Attitude in Foreign Language Learning ALFRED N. SMITH, Utah State University TO MOST READERS the word "attitude" in the above title is probably associated with the student. The third subtest, called sound-symbol correspondence, required test-takers to match syllable sounds in an unfamiliar language. Taken these two variables into considerations, several studies have been conducted to examine the connection between learners’ age, language aptitude, and their L2 performance. In view of L2 speaking ability, Smemoe and Haslam (2012) suggested that no matter the learning context was ESL or EFL, teaching pronunciation strategies would be beneficial to language learners. The AERA publication rates aptitude as more important than contextual factors, which include teaching method, textbook used, or teacher quality. Firstly, a variety of tests to capture language learners’ aptitude have been developed, providing deeper understanding of the construct as well as more choices on the tool to operationalize foreign language aptitude. Instead, all structures have been taken into analyzing. The data of Saito and Hanzawa’s (2016) study was collected from Japanese EFL learners. Through five sections of MLAT, Carroll and Sapon (1959) mentioned that foreign language aptitude was perceived as a construct with four main components: phonetic coding ability, grammar sensitivity, inductive language learning ability, and associative memory respectively. Thirdly, it was found that in two experimental groups, there was a significant relationship between the learners’ gain scores and their memory-for-text ability. Acknowledgments. However, according to Erlam (2005), the working memory measurement applied in the study was not flawless as it only captured information processing rather than information storage and processing. Overall, Erlam’s (2005) study indicated that deductive approach was the most superior, following by structure input approach and inductive approach. Also, Harley and Hart’s (1997) result suggested that early immersion learners tended to depend on memory, while their counterpart – late immersion group showed clear evidence on analytic ability. ), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. In fact, language aptitude is the second most important factor in language learning. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Besides LLAMA, Granena (2014) also used two types of GJT tests, consisting of speeded-response auditory GJT and non-speeded response one. Although there are overlaps between the two constructs, language aptitude and intelligence are still conceptualized as two different notions (Ortega, 2009). As mentioned in the initial part of the paper, Wesche’s (1981) article, although not explicitly, was one of the first papers offered the facilitative effects of matching learners’ language aptitude with suitable instructional approaches. Language aptitude is known as a predictor of language learners’ rate and success. Smemoe and Haslam (2012) found no significant effects of language aptitude nor learning context (EFL/ESL) on learners’ pronunciation strategy usage as well as on pronunciation gains. It shed a light to the fact that late learners with high level of analysis ability could perform significantly better as early learners. Then, they were pretested with two types of assessment, which were written sentence production and written sentence correction. Afterwards, based on the criterion of language aptitude, the participants were divided into one of the three groups of Audio-visual Method, Analytical approach, or Functional approach. With the aim to fill the gap, Granena (2014) explored how language aptitude had impacts on morphosyntax attainment of early childhood learners. According to Miyake and Friedman (1998), working memory was conceptualized as a component of foreign language aptitude; there have been many studies conducted to examine the interaction between working memory and L2 learning. The construct of foreign language aptitude is strongly associated with the name of John B. Carroll, the first to establish the methodology for studying aptitude, and its nature. For those who performed well on memory, auditory, and phonetic coding abilities were categorized into group receiving functional approach. He noted that the majority of such students were weak in auditory ability. Lastly, with learners with high LAA, although recasts and explicit feedback worked, explicit correction showed superior effectiveness. Whereas, language aptitude has been known as a predictor to the success of language learners. More specifically, some studies (Han, 2002; Lyster, 2004) have been done with the attempt to explore the impacts of corrective feedback on language acquisition. Overall, it could be observed that the tests capturing language learners’ aptitude have considerably developed throughout the years. (1981) Language aptitude measures in streaming, matching students with methods, and diagnosis of learner problems. Secondly, empirical studies examining the association between foreign language aptitude and instructional approach for grammar, feedback, as well as language learners’ speaking ability are respectively reviewed. Initially, it was reported that early learners showed more evidence in memory while late learners strongly showed the ability of language analysis (analytic ability). Regarding the relationship between language aptitude and feedback, remarkable studies have been conducted, providing a great deal of facilitative effectiveness of feedback on learners with different aptitude levels. aptitude in second language learning. In short, it could be observed that research of connection between language aptitude and age has brought a great deal of findings. Dekeyser (2000) utilized Words in Sentences part of MLAT to capture the participants’ analytic ability. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Dekeyser’s (1993) study indicated that error correction was beneficial with learners who had one of the following criterion: high previous achievement, high language aptitude, high level of extrinsic motivation, or low level of anxiety. Taking language aptitude into consideration, in the much-cited seminal article, Wesche (1981) measured language aptitude of the participant who were federal public servants and matched them with appropriate training situations. Language shapes people's minds and values. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - All Answers Ltd is a company registered in England and Wales. In other words, it could be concluded from Dekeyser’s (2000) study that high analytic ability, a component of language aptitude, played a role to help late learners reach near-nativeness level of English. MLAT, the first test measuring language learners’ aptitude, was designed to have five sections. 9th Dec 2019 However, Winke (2013) pointed out a negative correlation between language aptitude and motivation. With pre-intermediate learners, phonological short-term memory played an important role in test performance. There were two groups of participants joining Smemoe and Haslam’s (2012) study: one in EFL context and another in ESL one. The participants consisted of L1 Hungarian who have various length of residence in a speaking-English country. The third part of MLAT asked test-takers to choose a word which had nearest meaning in their L1. More specifically, Harley and Hart (1997) as well as Dekeyser (2002) touched upon a specific component of language aptitude, analytic ability, to explain for its effects on late-learners’ L2 performance. Also, Wesche’s (1981) study proved that matching language learners with suitable teaching approach based on their language aptitude would have positive impacts on their language learning. Moreover, Havranek and Cesnik (2001) did not focus on one specific target structure. However, in Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) study, oral correction did not only come from the teacher; correction from peers was also counted. Also, Hummel (2009) explored the impacts of phonological memory on L2 proficiency. In other words, in the EFL context lacking with target language exposure, learners with low level of aptitude used more strategies to make up for the lack of language ability. Although the researchers realized that language aptitude interacted with young learners when it came to some language features which were sensitive to CPH, the issue needs more future research focusing on examining this type of structure to clarify whether language aptitude can compensate critical period and if aptitude is helpful for young learners to absorb these structures. Firstly, the participants were mixed-aged and mixed-level; therefore, it was unlikely to conclude that oral correction was equally useful for the participants. Secondly, it allowed learners to process and connect temporarily-stored information with previously-stored ones. Therefore, with the aim to bridge the gap and clarify the development of issues of language aptitude, this paper begins by providing details of the two main studies. it correlation with learners’ language aptitude and learning outcomes in Chinese with a structural equation model (SEM). Although not directly relating to the study of Wesche (1981) and that of Hwu and Sun (2012), feedback – a form of responses to language learners’ production containing an error, has always been an attractive area to SLA researchers. Although it has been proved that there was an interaction between motivation and language aptitude, the level of association between these two factors were not answered clearly. In other words, these studies suggested that learners who had missed the CHP were required to have high level of language aptitude in order to reach a definite level of success in language learning. Granena’s (2014) study demonstrated several findings. 1. Dr. Paul Pimsleur of Ohio State University also researched the subject of language aptitude, which led to the development of the Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery. However, there are some drawbacks of Dekeyser’s (1993) study. Thirdly, reviewed studies showed that language aptitude plays a role in late language learners’ success. The finding of Sheen (2007) pointed out that corrective feedback was effective to ESL learners in general. Apart from the role that intellectual capacity and language aptitude play in a second or foreign language learning (Gardner & Lambert, 1972 cited in Xu 2008), motivation is a major factor in the successful study of language acquisition. To mention that memory for text, and structured input instruction these two factors remained unclear with... Was found aptitude does not refer to whether or not an example of (! Four main findings were reported either work with low WMC learners or LAA... 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